## Dissertation Stress?

Among the most challenging tasks for a doctoral student is the successful submission of the dissertation, which is required work for all doctorate-level degrees. For almost all doctoral candidates, the process of writing a dissertation can be a very arduous and tedious task, often causing a large amount of stress and anxiety.

There are many factors that contribute to this stress including, among others, thinking about an appropriate topic, conducting the actual field study, and worrying about numerous formatting requirements according to your particular discipline (e.g., APA, MLA). In addition, most colleges and universities require you to format your manuscript according to their particular formatting guidelines; in many cases, these guidelines may seem to contradict or are inconsistent with your discipline’s style and formatting requirements.

## The Difficulties of Formatting Statistical Symbols

As a doctoral candidate, you must demonstrate a wide variety of skills. These skills include (but are not limited to) an eye for minute details, a significant amount of advanced planning, an appropriate understanding of conducting research, the ability to analyze and put together separate pieces of information, and more.

In particular, one of the areas that most doctoral students have a very hard time with is the formatting statistical symbols. As a successful doctoral candidate, you must demonstrate this particular skill which is required for all quantitative dissertations.

There are many reasons that students have a decent amount of trouble with this section in particular. For most doctoral students, there is only a very basic understanding of statistics. Furthermore, since the subject itself can get rather complicated, even those with statistical knowledge can become very confused at times.

Another factor complicating statistical formatting is the sheer number of statistical notations and symbols that also must be appropriately formatted according to your style and college/university guidelines. Properly employing statistical notations and symbols is not only expected but also required for any quantitative study.

## Quantitative Studies – Help with Formatting Statistical Symbols

If you are unsure about which symbols to use and how to appropriately format them, it may be a good idea to seek the help of an expert dissertation consultant. Trying to understand and format the highly-technical statistical symbols for your dissertation can leave you anxious and frustrated. To alleviate this anxiety and frustration, you may have to seriously consider working with a knowledgeable dissertation consultant who is a seasoned expert in this area.

Don’t waste time trying to understand statistical symbols when you could use that time for other urgent dissertation tasks such as writing or collecting data. Let us handle the statistical symbols for you to ensure your dissertation manuscript is polished and appropriate for your dissertation committee.

The majority of your the statistical symbols in your dissertation will be found in your data analysis description and the summary of your results and findings. You will likely use descriptive statistics to quantitatively analyze your data; however, you might also use more advanced statistical testing and notations.

### Examples of Statistical Symbols You Might Use in Your Dissertation* *

If you are familiar with statistics, you may recognize common statistical symbols. You probably have encountered many of these symbols in journal articles, technical reports, or in your last statistics course. To help you get reoriented with the symbols, we have provided a list of the most common statistical symbols in APA style (see below). APA formatting of these symbols requires italicizing; also keep in mind that, unlike before, underlining is no longer used in APA 6^{th} edition.

*M: *This statistical symbol refers to the mean or the average.

*SD*: This statistical abbreviation refers to the standard deviation.

*R(r)*: This statistical symbol refers to the sample correlation coefficient.

*R ^{2}*: This statistical symbol refers to the multiple correlation coefficient.

*S2*: This statistical symbol refers to the sample variance.

*t*: This statistical symbol refers to the Student’s t.

*tc*: This statistical symbol refers to t critic or the critical value for a confidence level.

*z:* This statistical symbol refers to the *z*-score.

β: This statistical symbol refers to Beta

X^{2}: This statistical symbol refers to Chi-square

## The Benefits of Getting Expert Assistance

If you still think you need help, don’t think twice. Get the assistance of an expert consultant and get yourself back on track. Dissertation consultants usually have years of experience and are extremely well-versed with formatting statistical symbols, statistical analysis, and in all parts of the dissertation process.

Eliminate your anxiety money by having a specialized consultant help you with your dissertation. Get peace of mind, gain time, and impress your academic colleagues by getting expert help to make sure your dissertation is submitted according to the highest academic standards.

**Dissertation Genius – Experts with the Entire Dissertation Process**

For over two decades, Dissertation Genius has been helping students and doctoral candidates perfect their dissertations and submit exceptional work. We specialize in all subjects within the sciences, social sciences and humanities. Click here to learn more details about how we can help.

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